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Style Manuals and Related WebLinks


"Style manuals have evolved from early printers' manuals into tools for authors, editors, and students. They range from general style manuals to those intended for use within a specific discipline, or even within the pages of a single journal.

Most style manuals contain much more than examples of footnotes and bibliographies. Advice on grammar and punctuation, tips on conducting research, and recommendations on the appearance of the finished paper are commonly found. Thus, the distinction between the style manual and the writing guide can be subtle." [1]

Styles Guide Survey Sites

A survey of style guides currently available in various academic and professional fields and found a wide range of practices for citing electronic sources.

Open Colleges has produced Style Guide Resources For APA, MLA, CSE and Chicago.

APA (American Psychological Association)

APA Style tips, Writing tips on online guide.

APA Publications:

  • The 5th edition of APA's Publication Manual.
  • Concise Rules of APA Style: Introducing the Official Pocket Style Guide from the APA.
  • The APA Style Guide family also includes:
    • Mastering APA Style (Student)
    • Mastering APA Style (Instructor)
    • Displaying Your Findings
    • Presenting Your Findings

Chicago Manual of Style Documentation

The Chicago Manual of Style is a very comprehensive book which describes two documentation styles, one using notes and bibliographies, the other using author-date citations and lists of references. The Chicago Manual also gives guidelines for spelling and punctuation and discusses the treatment of numbers, quotations, illustrations, tables, foreign languages, mathematical symbols, abbreviations, and so on. The current edition is the Fifteenth Edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. An online summary.

Turabian, an 11 page concise summary of the Chicago Manual of Style citation methods. A PDF version. Some Turabin examples.

Citing Electronic & Internet Sources

Electronic References & Scholarly Citations of Internet Sources[2]

Legal Style Guides


An online Introduction to Basic Legal Citation (LII 2006 ed.) by Peter W. Martin

The Bluebook

The Bluebook, the definitive style guide for legal citation. For generations, law students, lawyers, scholars, judges, and other legal professionals have relied on the Bluebook system of citation.

The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation is published by the Harvard Law Review Association in conjunction with the Columbia Law Review , the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and The Yale Law Journal. Now in a new Eighteenth Edition.

MLA (Modern Language Association)

The Modern Language Association does not publish its documentation guidelines on the Web. For an authoritative explanation of MLA style, see the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (for high school and undergraduate college students) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (for graduate students, scholars, and professional writers). Please also see frequently asked questions about MLA style. Another summary. MLA has put out a new style handbook update MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd Edition (Published: May 2008, ISBN: 9780873522977).

ASA (American Sociological Association)

A Quick Style Guide based on the 'American Sociological Association Style Guide (1997)'. A pdf summary.

ACS (American Chemical Society)

The ACS style guide has been recently edited (Jul 2006).

Harvard System

The Harvard Style is an author-date system for books, articles and "non-books". [3]. A PDF Document explaining the Harvard citation style.

CBE Style

Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, published by the Council of Biology Editors (now the Council of Science Editors) in 1994. Many writers in the natural sciences use the citation style recommended in the CBE Manual, which also gives advice for styling and formatting scientific papers, journals, and books for publication. Its editors offer two methods for citing and documenting sources: the citation-sequence system and the name-year system.

Important note: The seventh edition of Scientific Style and Format, which will be published soon, gives new recommendations for citing electronic sources. While these recommendations are not included here, you can find out more about them by visiting the CSE's Web site.

German Style Convention Links

French Web links

Reference Sheet for Natbib

"The natbib package is a reimplementation of the LATEX \cite command, to work with both author-year and numerical citations. It is compatible with the standard bibliographic style files, such as plain.bst, as well as with those for harvard, apalike, chicago, astron, authordate." It provides a useful list of the range of citations required for citation entry.

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