# Built-in functions and Stored Procedures

## Contents

## Overview

The HSQLdb database engine included with Base supports the following functions and stored procedures for use within queries.

The Query component in Base allows for SQL commands that return a result set. i.e. SELECT and CALL

The component supports two views:

- GUI Query Designer (Designer View)
- Text editor (SQL View)

Queries created and executed in Designer and SQL View support the use of named replaceable parameters in these statements, in most cases. Use of this feature is controlled by the option 'Escape Processing'.

Escape Processing is always ENABLED when using Designer View.

Escape Processing is ENABLED by default in SQL View, but may be DISABLED by selecting the 'Run SQL directly' tool button.

The SQL window in Base (opened with the menu commands TOOLS > SQL) allows any valid SQL statement to be executed, but it does not return any data results to the user. Statements executed in this window serve two main purposes.

- Data Manipulation Language ( DML ) statements. i.e. UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT.
- Data Definition Language ( DDL ) statements. i.e. CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, etc.

Multiple statements may be executed as a batch by ending each statement with a semi-colon.

All functions listed below are available for use in the SQL window.

Each table below is formatted as follows:

- Function Name - this is the actual function, along with required or optional parameters
- Designer - Yes in this column means it may be used in Designer View. No, the function must be used in SQL View.
- Esc Proc - Yes in this column means it may be used in SQL View, with escape processing ENABLED. No, the function is only available in SQL View with escape processing DISABLED.
- Comments - A brief description of what the function does, the parameters expected and the type of output generated.

## Numerical Functions

Function Name | Desinger | Esc Proc | Comments |
---|---|---|---|

ABS(d) | YES | YES | Returns the absolute value of a number. ABS( -1 ) = ABS( 1 ) |

ACOS(d) | YES | YES | Returns the arc cosine of an angle, in the range of 0.0 through pi. ACOS( .5 ) = 1.05 |

ASIN(d) | YES | YES | Returns the arc sine of an angle, in the range of -pi/2 through pi/2. ASIN( .5 ) = 0.52 |

ATAN(d) | YES | YES | Returns the arc tangent of an angle, in the range of -pi/2 through pi/2. ATAN( .5 ) = 0.46 |

ATAN2(a,b) | YES | YES | Returns the tangent of a/b. ATAN2( 1, 2 ) = 0.46 |

BITAND(a,b) | YES | YES | Returns a & b. BITAND( 0, 1 ) = 0 |

BITOR(a,b) | YES | YES | Returns a | b BITOR( 0,1 ) = 1 |

CEILING(d) | YES | YES | Rreturns the smallest integer that is not less than d CEILING( 8.7 ) = 9 |

COS(d) | YES | YES | Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle. COS( .5 ) = 0.88 |

COT(d) | YES | YES | Returns the cotangent of an angle. COT( .5 ) = 1.83 |

DEGREES(d) | YES | YES | Converts radians to degrees. DEGREES( 1 ) = 57.29577951 |

EXP(d) | YES | YES | Returns the exponential number e (i.e., 2.718...) raised to the power of a double value. EXP( 2 ) = 7.389056 |

FLOOR(d) | YES | YES | Returns the largest double value that is not greater than the d. FLOOR( -8.7 ) = -9 |

LOG(d) | NO | NO | Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of d. d must be greater than 0.0. LOG( 1.5 ) = 0.41 LOG( -1 ) = -1.#NAN SEE ISSUE#69054 |

LOG10(d) | YES | YES | Returns the logarithm (base 10) of d. d must be greater than 0.0. LOG10( 1.5 ) = 0.18 LOG10( -1 ) = -1.#NAN |

MOD(a,b) | YES | YES | Returns a modulo b MOD( 7, 2 ) = 1 |

PI() | YES | YES | The double value that is closer than any other to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. PI() = 3.14159265 |

POWER(a,b) | YES | YES | Returns of value of the first argument, a, raised to the power of the second argument, b. POWER( 2, 2 ) = 4 |

RADIANS(d) | YES | YES | Converts degrees to radians RADIANS( 1 ) = 0.01745329 |

RAND() | YES | YES | Returns a random number x >= 0.0 and < 1.0 RAND() MIGHT EQUAL 0.34 |

ROUND(a,b) | YES | YES | Rounds a to b digits after the decimal point. ROUND( 1.0333, 2 ) = 1.0300 |

ROUNDMAGIC(d) | YES* |
YES* |
solves certain rounding problems, specifically when numbers approach 0.0 such as 3.11-3.1-0.001 ROUNDMAGIC( 3.11-3.1-0.001 ) = 0.01 * Currently when used with escape processing enabled the return value is changed to a string. The workaround for this is to cast the result back to a dboule.CAST( ROUNDMAGIC( D ) AS DOUBLE ) See Issue#81031 |

SIGN( d ) | YES | YES | Returns -1 if d is smaller than 0, 0 if d==0 and 1 if d is bigger than 0 SIGN( -0.001 ) = -1 |

SIN(d) | YES | YES | Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle. d is an angle in radians SIN( PI() / 12 ) = 0.25881905 |

SQRT( d ) | YES | YES | Returns the square root of d. <br. SQRT( 9 ) = 3 |

TAN( A ) | YES | YES | Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle, A. A - and angle in in radians. TAN( 0.01745329 * 20 ) = 0.36397018 |

TRUNCATE(a,b) | YES | YES | Truncates a to b digits after the decimal point. TRUNCATE( 1.0333, 3 ) = 1.0330 |

## String Fnctions

Function Name | Desinger | Esc Proc | Comments |
---|---|---|---|

ASCII(s) | YES | YES | |

BIT_LENGTH(str) | YES | YES | |

CHAR(c) | YES | YES | |

CHAR_LENGTH(str) | YES | YES | |

CONCAT(str1,str2) | YES | YES | |

DIFFERENCE(s1,s2) | YES | YES | |

HEXTORAW(s1) | YES | YES | |

INSERT(s,start,len,s2) | YES | YES | |

LCASE(s) | YES | YES | |

LEFT(s,count) | YES | YES | |

LENGTH(s) | YES | YES | |

LOCATE(search,s,[start]) | YES | YES | |

LTRIM(s) | YES | YES | |

OCTET_LENGTH(str) | YES | YES | |

RAWTOHEX(s1) | YES | YES | |

POSITION (... IN ..) | YES | YES | |

REPEAT(s,count) | YES | YES | |

REPLACE(s,replace,s2) | YES | YES | |

RIGHT(s,count) | YES | YES | |

RTRIM(s) | YES | YES | |

SOUNDEX(s) | YES | YES | |

SPACE(count) | YES | YES | |

SUBSTR(s,start[,len]) | YES | YES | |

SUBSTRING(s,start[,len]) | YES | YES | |

SUBSTRING(... FROM ... FOR ...) | YES | YES | |

TRIM( [ LEADING | TRAILING | BOTH ] FROM s ) | YES | YES | |

UCASE(s) | YES | YES | |

LOWER(s) | YES | YES | |

UPPER(s) | YES | YES |

## Date and Time Functions

Function Name | Desinger | Esc Proc | Comments |
---|---|---|---|

CURDATE() | YES | YES | |

CURTIME() | YES | YES | |

DATEDIFF(string, datetime1, datetime2) | YES | YES | |

DAYNAME(date) | YES | YES | |

DAYOFMONTH(date) | YES | YES | |

DAYOFWEEK(date) | YES | YES | |

DAYOFYEAR(date) | YES | YES | |

HOUR(time) | YES | YES | |

MINUTE(time) | YES | YES | |

MONTH(date) | YES | YES | |

MONTHNAME(date) | YES | YES | |

NOW() | YES | YES | |

QUARTER(date) | YES | YES | |

SECOND(time) | YES | YES | |

WEEK(date) | YES | YES | |

YEAR(date) | YES | YES | |

CURRENT_DATE | YES | YES | |

CURRENT_TIME | YES | YES | |

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP | YES | YES | |

TO_CHAR( datetime, format String ) | YES | YES |

## System Functions

Function Name | Desinger | Esc Proc | Comments |
---|---|---|---|

DATABASE() | YES | YES | Returns the fully qualified file name of the Base file DATABASE() = C:\Documents and Settings\HP_Owner\My Documents\Forum\ChucrchLibrary\new_library.odb |

USER() | NO | NO | Returns the name of the user connected to the Base database NOTE - This command requires use of the parentheses. USER() = SA |

CURRENT_USER | YES | YES | Returns the name of the user connected to the Base database. This is actually a macro that calls the function USER(). NOTE - Use of parentheses is not allowed with this macro. CURRENT_USER = SA |

IDENTITY() | YES | YES | Returns the last identity value that was inserted by this connection. |

## Aggregate Functions

Function Name | Desinger | Esc Proc | Comments |
---|---|---|---|

COUNT( any | * ) | YES | YES | |

MIN(d) | YES | YES | |

MAX(d) | YES | YES | |

SUM(d) | YES | YES | |

AVG(d) | YES | YES | |

SOME(b) | NO | NO | |

EVERY(b) | YES | YES |

### Statistical Functions

Function Name | Desinger | Esc Proc | Comments |
---|---|---|---|

VAR_POP | |||

VAR_SAMP | |||

STDDEV_POP | |||

STDDEV_SAMP |