- 1 Bibliographic Project's Developer Page
- 2 Terminology
- 3 1st Stage, Bibliographic Facility Redevelopment
- 4 2nd Stage Bibliographic Facility Redevelopment
- 5 Further References
- 6 How to get started
- 7 Sample Code
- 8 Contacts
Bibliographic Project's Developer Page
- citation and reference formatting support for:
- full suppport of commonly used citation styles like APA and Chicago
- automatically switching between potentially radically different citation styles (ie. footnote to in-text)
- a data model that can support a broader range of reference types
- integration with remote databases
The vision here is to transform the bibliographic and citation support in OOo into one that is more feature-rich, and fully dynamic. A user should be able to drag-and-drop a citation on a document and have its reference entry automatically rendered and added to the reference list. Likewise, a user should be able to change styles without any manual editing.
Just as importantly, this approach recognizes that refernce management is increasingly network-based. Commercial web-based services like RefWorks  are taking significant market share from more traditional desktop plug-in applications like Endnote . Likewise, there is increasing focus on free software and service alternatives, such as CiteULike , Connotea , RefBase , and the forthcoming FireFox Scholar  browser extension. To take advantage of these new opportunities, it must be easy for applications to serve as data sources for OpenOffice, requiring minimal coding.
Our current objective is to design and build OOoBib version 0.1, which will contain the most basic functions for an usable bibliographic facility with the above features.
For clarity, this project deals with the following pieces:
- a short description that points to a fuller description elsewhere, either in a note or a reference list
- reference item
- a fuller description; also called a bibliographic entry or item
- reference list
- a collection of references; also called a bibliography
1st Stage, Bibliographic Facility Redevelopment
As our first step, we will implement the most simple changes to the OOo Writer core code (the API basic code, and UNO mappings, but not yet the user interface code) necessary to implement basic support for:
- Saving and reading the new citation field in OpenDocument i.e. the New Citation XML info design and implementation
- Inserting and displaying citations in OpenOffice Writer using the new field. Note: this task does not include the GUI interface to insert the citation in the new format, only the UNO interface to provide the basic function. (See some implementation discussion).
- Storage of bibliographic reference metadata in the OOo document save package and the code changes necessary to read and save that metadata.
When these basic functions are built into OOo Writer and are made assessable via UNO, we can then use rapid prototyping development methods to design and build prototype GUI interfaces and bibliographic formatting engines. We will be able to use any of the programming languages which have OpenOffice bindings: C++, Java, Python and, of course, OpenOffice Basic. We believe that we will find more developers who can work in these languages than by insisting on C++ code from the start. Also it is much easier to build prototypes using Java, Python and OpenOffice Basic than in C++.
NB. When we have designed, built and tested the prototypes and they have been accepted by the OOo community we intend to rebuild them in C++ and to have them made part of the core OpenOffice application. Skills required - good C++ programming and some XML skills with knowledge of, or willingness to learn, the OpenOffice UNO (see the Openoffice Developer's Guide)
The project needs to modify the Writer document-read and document-save modules to support the new OpenDocument enhanced citation field. This involves implementing the citation and bibliography changes to the OOo Writer save file (in Open Document format) accepted by the OpenDocument Technical Committee, as well as current metadata work. Both of these are scheduled for inclusion in ODF 1.2, scheduled for delivery in 2007.
New Citation Field
The changes to the document schema are detailed in our OpenDocument XML Citation Proposal pdf. The new field consists of:
- one or more references to bibliographic metadata records
- the formatted citation content
Here are two examples of the new citation field. The first is a standard author-year style, with additional page number details:
<text:p>Here is a paragraph with a citation <cite:citation> <cite:citation-source> <cite:biblioref cite:key="urn:isbn:0814712827#154"> <cite:detail cite:units="pages" cite:begin="23" cite:end="24"/> </cite:biblioref> </cite:citation-source> <cite:citation-body> <text:span text:style-name="Citation">(Veer, 1996:23-24)</text:span> </cite:citation-body> </cite:citation> </text:p>
The second is a footnoted example.
<text:p>Here is a paragraph with a citation <cite:citation> <cite:citation-source> <cite:biblioref cite:key="urn:isbn:0814712827#154"/> </cite:citation-source> <cite:citation-body> <text:note text:id="ftn0" text:note-class="footnote"> <text:note-citation>1</text:note-citation> <text:note-body> <text:p text:style-name="Footnote">Peter van der Veer (1996) Riots and Rituals: The Construction of Violence and Public Space in Hindu Nationalism, In Paul Brass Ed., Riots and Pogroms (New York:NYU Press) 154–76.</text:p> </text:note-body> </text:note> </cite:citation-body> </cite:citation> </text:p>
The design is such that it is possible to radically change citation formatting without modifying the citation-source element. If a user starts authoring their document in a footnote style, for example, and later must change to an author-year style, the logic is in place to make this a totally seamless switch. Commercial products like Endnote do not support this sort of (quite useful) functionality.Note: The cite-key ,
<cite:biblioref cite:key="urn:isbn:0814712827#154"/>in the above example, provides a link to the reference data stored in the biblio-data.xml file in the save package. There is a document comparing the current save-package format to the proposed format, and a complete document example. The changes to the document schema need to be supported by the document save and load modules. These are detailed in the Further References below.
The bibliographic code modules in OOo Writer need to be modified to support the new schema. The modules that need to be modified are:
note: In CP Hennessy's award winning a article he explains the citation facilities of OpenOffice.org, examining the APIs available to the programmer to manipulate the citation data, and how these API calls actually map to real C++ classes in the OpenOffice.org source code. Also, former Sun developer Florian Reuter has posted an outline of how to store the new citation data.
Bibliographic Reference Data
Currently the Writer saves a complete copy of the bibliographic reference metadata associated with a citation, with each citation. We propose to separate the citation and the reference data, by leaving just the citation details in the document save file and place the detailed reference metadata in a separate bibliographic data file the OOo save file package. The task is to complete the design of the reference metadata file and add support for it in the OOo save file package.
The relevant component is "interface XComponentLoader" which supports loadComponentFromURL and storeAsURL.
Note: the OASIS OpenDocument TC is currently discussing plans to enhance metadata support in the file format by using an extensible RDF approach. It is our hope that this will offer support sufficient for this project's needs, so that the process of designing the bibliographic data representation noted above will largely consist of simply using standardized OpenDocument metadata.
To enhance flexibility and make enhancement easier, it is important that formatting be modular. In Word 2007, Microsoft is adding citation support very similar in structure to what we propose here, and using XSLT to do the formatting. The formatting process just transforms the embedded XML source data, and then passes it to the citation and bibliographic fields.
CiteProc is a working proof-of-concept for the formatting functionality we propose to offer in OOo, and has already been used to format demanding citations and references for a published book. It was originally authored in XSLT 2.0.
There are two options, then. One option discussed on the XML dev list is to bundle Saxon as the default XSLT processor in OOo, which would allow the existing CiteProc implementation to be used more-or-less as is, or for other solutions to be easily swapped in (as Microsoft allows).
svn list https://svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/xbiblio citeproc-py/ citeproc-rb/ csl-schema/ . So if, for example, you want to checkout the python directory and start playing with that (there's not much there!), you can just do: . svn co https://svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/xbiblio/citeproc-py
2nd Stage Bibliographic Facility Redevelopment
The second stage is focused on adding backward and forward compatibility support, integration with remote servers, and user interface improvements.
Footnote Style Citations
Build in support for footnote style citations. This should not be difficult to build as it would be utilising the exiting footnote machinery.
First and Subsequent Citation Flags
Code needs to be written to set first and subsequent occurrence flag and for the 'repeated, adjacent citations' flag for each reference. These flags would be passed on to Citeproc so that, if they are required by the style selected by the user, first and subsequent formatted citations, or 'repeated, adjacent citations' options such as Ibid, could be returned to Writer. Note: Setting the first and subsequent occurrence flag needs to work with the footnote counting options options set in Tools-->Footnotes-->TAB=Footnotes:'Footnote Counting', which are: Per Document, Per Page and Per Chapter. (Consideration needs to be given the range permitted in 'repeated, adjacent citations' test. You probably should not start a new chapter with an Ibid. citation, it can even be annoying across page boundaries, when you have to turn the page back to check the citation. So perhaps the range should always be 'Per Page').
Method: The current API of the Writer provides an interface XTextRangeCompare. With this interface two text ranges (citations are also text ranges) can be sorted. This interface is implemented at each text part (body text, header, footer, footnote areas, text frames, table cells, draw text).
Backwards and Forwards Compatibility
An important object of Bibliographic Enhancement project is to maintain document file backwards compatibility with older versions of OpenOffice. To achieve this when Bibliographic Entries are inserted into a Document they are stored with the same format as is currently the case. A new bibliographic entry tag will be added with the enhanced citation functions, each citation will contain a key that will point to the bibliographic data which will be saved in the document save package. To preserve backwards compatability we will need to also maintain the old bibliographic citation and data storage in the document. Older version of OpenOffice, without the bibliographic enhancements, in the OOo 2.X .ods format, will read the old format of the bibliographic citations and ignore the bibliographic data file in the save package. A suggested approach is illustrated in a flowchart.
When a major revision of the save package format is introduced the support of the older bibliographic representations can be dropped form the document save file.
Remote Server Integration
Build Z39.50 and SRU/W based internet searching facility using the YAZ toolkit. This would enable searching for and retrieving bibliographic data from internet sources and storing them in a document or bibliographic database.
We would like to use SRU/W as the standard method for OOo retrieving bibliographic data from any source. In that case, even a local Bibliographic database would also be accessed through SRU/W methods. The user would just select a local or remote source and the same access mechanism would be used. SRU is particularly promising because while it shares the same model as the SOAP-based SRW, it is expressed in an easier to implement RESTful protocol.
This would mean adopting a standard API, which ZOOM provides, and then wrapping the YAZ client code in a UNO interface.
Also build Z39.50 and SRU/W server capability into OOo to enable users to share their bibliographic (and other) databases over the internet. One of the Indexdata toolkits could used as a basis. [this may need more thought; sharing is good, but there are different ways to do this]
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
This stage will involve designing a building a GUI to offer:
- Basic citation insertion
- Basic bibliographic data entry
- Citation and bibliographic table formating using Citeproc.
- Basic Bibliographic database access
- Basic bibliographic internet search and database storage.
- Automatic generation of references from an OOo-document or parts thereof, similar to enhanced bookmarking by using the document properties. --MadBoP 10:56, 15 April 2006 (CEST)
First, see a list of the Functional Requirements of the OpenOffice Bibliographic Module and the Bibliographic Database enhancement proposals which provides details of our development plans and basic information for potential developers.
For an overview of the Bibliographic project's major components and components see the context diagram. There is information about the current OpenOffice Bibliographic implementation. There is an example of bibliographic data in a Writer XML save file
A start has been made to the Specification for this work (see the Projects Specifications folder on the Documents and Files page). Also see a attempt at an analysis of the proposed Bibliographic enhancement components and their relationships. The best place to start for finding out about development in OpenOffice is the OpenOffice.org For Developers page. An important resource is the Developer's guide which is part of the SDK (software development kit). Also see advice on writing specification documents.
The OOo API is based on UNO (Universal Network Objects)is the interface-based component model of OpenOffice.org. UNO offers interpretability between different programming languages, different object models, different machine architectures and different processes; either in a local network or even via the Internet. UNO components can be implemented in and accessed from any programming language for which a UNO language binding exists. We currently provide several language bindings for UNO which allows to use the API from Java, C++, OpenOffice.org Basic, Python and Common Language Infrastructure (CLI).
The writer UNO interface is typically implemented in sw/source/core/unocore. That is a useful directory to see how UNO stuff gets mapped to it's core writer implementation. e.g. SW_SERVICE_INDEX_BIBLIOGRAPHY is a bibliography related service. The Bibliography table (reference table) is processed like other indexes such as 'Table of Contents', Table of Illustrations' etc. These index functions are handled by the code module unoidx.cxx. Basic text functions are handled in the code module unotext.cxx.
Implementing the new citation element in xmloff (the XmlOffice module) is a routine task. The Sun developers want to do it together with our programmer, so that he/she can learn how xmloff works. Florian Reuter, from the Sun OOo team, has written in his blog an explanation of how the citation changes could be implemented. Note: [CPHennessy] has been working on this task and has implemented almost everything necessary for parsing the new cite: elements and attributes. It compiles and parses the supplied example file. See his article explaining the citation facilities of OpenOffice.org, examining the APIs available to the programmer to manipulate the citation data, and how these API calls actually map to real C++ classes in the OpenOffice.org source code.
To modify the Writer save-file read and save modules to support the new the bibliographic data file in the document save package, and to support backwards and forwards compatability logic to Writer the "interface XComponentLoader", which supports loadComponentFromURL and storeAsURL, needs to be enhanced. See the Development Guide explanation for - 6.1.5 Handling Documents. See sample Writer save file contents for a (a .odt file) with the proposed bibliographic enhancements.
There is also a demonstration client program for the YAZ toolkit (C & C++). - IRTCL that can perform the reference searches. (Requires YAZ and Tcl/Tk libraries be installed). It does everything but save or export the results ! However it is good model of how to use the toolkit and could be used as the basis for or model of a prototype internet searching facility. Screen pic, screen pic2.
A demonstration internet searching facility that writes selected bibliographic records back to the OOo bibliographic database has been written in Python - PyOOBib, instructions are available. Various problems with OOo Python have lead to us concluding that YAZ in C++ would be a better foundation than the Python code.
For details about GUI interface design please look at our Project Documentation; GUI Design Documents' Folder
How to get started
Access to the source code for this project is available for download via CVS. A child work space has been created for us called "metabib" which contains a copy of the xmloff (OpenOffice.org XML File Format Definition) and sw (the word processor application component and the WYSIWYG HTML editor component) code. The down load size will be about 1GB(?). And you will need about 2GB of disk space to compile the metabib CWS (Child-Work-Space). ( Web access to CWS ). If you can not handle that size download then ask us about sending it to you on cdroms. Administration process - you first need to sign the JCA and then obtain the ssh key. After that we will show you how you can access the 'CWS'. It's basically a CVS branch. The most complicated thing is the setup of your tools, such that you can participate in the OOo development --- but, when you have got the ssh key we will show you. See OpenOffice.org For Developers for general development information.
- Sample python code that reads and outputs some of the fields of the records in the bibliographic database. biblioacess.py
- Sample OpenOffice Basic program to write records to the bibliographic database bibwrite.html
- Henrik Just's LaTeX and BibTeX export filter
- A Perl script which can import Bibliographic database records from PubMed by a list of PMIDs. It writes directly to the biblio database file (not through Openoffice) pickupfrompubmed.pl
- A Perl module OpenOffice::OODoc provides a simple way to access document elements in the (closed i.e. not interactive with OOo) document save file. It provides a lot of various accessors, including a few ones allowing bibliographic field creation, retrieval, or update. Look at bibliographyEntryContent(), getBibliographyElements(), setBibliographyMark() in the OpenOffice::OODoc::Text manual page.
- A Perl script, CiteProxy, acts as an SRU gateway that CiteProc can use to fetch MODS data from defined sources using known identifiers. It's intended to run as a service on a web server: at the moment it can handle info:pmid, urn:isbn, urn:issn and unalog identifiers.
Applications for importing/exporting different bibliographic formats.
- A python script for importing RIS format reference(s), RISmport.py. Possibly of some value as it hashes out some RIS details on mapping between fields, and suggests "sensitive" mapping for different reference types.